Everybody wants to be healthy, everybody wants to live long, everybody wants to have a good life. But, how can we have these desires if we don’t take action? We only think about ourselves, how can we live healthy if our surroundings is not healthy? How can we live long if our community isn’t safe for us.
It’s still everywhere
Imagine we all throw garbage, junk and rubbish away anyhow. Imagine there was no authority to supervise waste management activities from all the sources mentioned earlier. Imagine we all just sent our rubbish to the landfill, or just dumped them in a nearby river. What do you think will happen? A disaster!
Waste is one of the main cause of why are there are different diseases now. Waste and wastes are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or it is worthless, defective and of no use. Inappropriately managed waste can attract rodents and insects, which can harbour gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, worms, the plague and other conditions for humans, and exposure to hazardous wastes, particularly when they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers. Toxic waste materials can contaminate surface water, groundwater, soil, and air which causes more problems for humans, other species, and ecosystems. Waste treatment and disposal produces significant green house gas (GHG) emissions, notably methane, which are contributing significantly to global warming.
Waste that end up in water bodies negatively change the chemical composition of the water. Technically, this is called water pollution. This will affect all ecosystems existing in the water. It can also cause harm to animals that drink from such polluted water. Liquid that forms as water trickles through contaminated areas is called Leachate. It forms very harmful mixture of chemicals that may result in hazardous substances entering surface water, groundwater or soil.Leachate is a widely used term in the environmental sciences where it has the specific meaning of a liquid that has dissolved or entrained environmentally harmful substances that may then enter the environment. It is most commonly used in the context of land-filling of putrescible or industrial waste.
In the narrow environmental context leachate is therefore any liquid material that drains from land or stockpiled material and contains significantly elevated concentrations of undesirable material derived from the material that it has passed through.
In Brgy. San Pedro, Jaro, Iloilo City, improper waste management is one of their problem, especially throwing waste on the Barangay’s drainage.
The waste creates clogging in the flow of the water, especially when it rains hard, it causes flood. Since, their are wastes in the drainage when its full the waste water will be flooding the houses with contaminated water. It is very dangerous especially for children who like to play in flood.
Its hazardous effect
Human and animal activities generate different kinds of wastes. These wastes are generally in solid form, and may cause pollution of land, water, and air unless treated and disposed off. The process of collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal can be grouped under solid waste management.
The main sources for solid wastes are domestic, commercial, industrial, municipal, and agricultural wastes.The composition of a city waste is as follows:
– Paper, wood, cardboard 53 percent
– Garbage 22 percent
– Ceramics, glass, crockery 10 percent
– Metals 8 percent
– Rubber, plastics, discarded textiles 7 percent
The increase in the quantity of solid waste is due to overpopulation, affluence, and technological advancement.How can we treated them properly we need to know the characteristic of them.
Classification of the waste
1. Solid waste
2. Liquid waste
3. Hazardous waste
4. Medical waste
1. Solid waste
Solid waste by definition are waste materials that contain less than 70 percent water. This class includes such materials as household garbage, some industrial waste, some mining waste, and oilfield waste such as drill cutting. These garbage are generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes with rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits.
2. Liquid waste
Liquid waste are usually waste water’s that contain less that 1 percent solid. Such waste may contain high concentrations of dissolved salts and metals. Sludge is the class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between 3-25 percent solid, while the rest of material is water dissolved materials.
3. Hazardous waste Hazardous waste could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants. They are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive. Hazardous waste cannot be safety returned to environment and need special treatment to discard them.
4. Medical waste
Medical waste is generated during the diagnosis treatment. It comprise of sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, culture discard medicines, chemical waste, etc. The forms of wastes such as syringes, swabs, bandage, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not manage in a scientific and discriminate manner.
Health impact from improper waste disposal
The majority type of impact from improper waste disposal to human health can be considered as direct impact and indirect impact. Both two type of impacts are significant impact to human health. The effect from improper waste disposal can slowly change the surrounding and accumulated the toxicants into environment. When people living, working, or using the resource nearly the improper waste disposal. They have risk to get adverse health effect from the contaminants of waste disposal.
If people directly touch some toxic waste which are corrosive they will have serious hazard from that waste. However, the most hazard from improper waste disposal is the effect from infectious disease. Unattended waste lying around attracts flies, rats, and other creatures that in turn spread disease. This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems.
Inparticular, organic domestic waste pose a serious threat, since they ferment, creating conditions favorable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable.
Exposure to the hazardous waste can affect human health, children being more vulnerable to these pollutants. Infacts, direct exposure can lead to disease through chemical exposure are the releasing of chemical waste into environment leads to chemical poisoning. Toxic waste such as heavy metal and organic toxic waste can cause adverse health effect to human.
Waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. Co-disposal of industrial hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazard. These type of waste could contaminate in surface water and ground water and lead to water pollution which is the significant impact to human health.
Disposal of hospital and other medical waste required special attention since this create major health hazards. This waste generated from the hospitals, health care centers, medical laboratories, and research centers such as discard syringe needles, bandages, swabs, plaster, and other types of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular non-infectious waste.
The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effect on human health has become a matter of concern. Colored plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful metals found in the plastics are copper, lead, chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium.
Health effect from chemicals contaminated in improper waste disposal.
1. Mercury : The most serious effect from mercury poisoning are the neurotoxicity, and the toxicity to the kidney. Symptoms may be caused by both inorganic and organic compounds. The symptoms may be caused by both inorganic and organic compounds. The symptoms include vague, development of a sallow complexion, dyspepsia and headaches.
2. Cadmium : Itai-Itai disease is the well known toxicity of cadmium. Normally, cadmium have the effect to kidneys and lungs. However, the accumulation of cadmium can cause a painful type of osteomalacia in which multiple fractures and renal dysfunction.
3. Copper, Magnesium and Zinc : These group of metal produce dyspnoea, retrosternal and epigastric pain, and cough with expactoration.
4. Lead : Symptoms of lead poisoning include abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. There may be clinical sign of anaemia occurring as a late manifestration of disease. Anaemia is seen only in inorganic poisoning and occur late in the disease. Disturbances of haem synthesis can be detected almost as soon as exposure to lead has begun.
Not only the anaemia lead can also make the retardant of brain in baby which lead to make I.Q. reduction. The learning ability of children may decrease if they ingest high level of lead contaminants.
5. Arsenic : Those who ingest arsenic contaminants may have skin cancer. Peripheral neuropathy appears in some cases and is usually accompanied by pain, burning and tenderness, and difficulty in walking. There are gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain occurred by the toxicity of arsenic.
In Brgy. San Pedro, Jaro, Iloilo City, water pollution from households and improper waste disposal is highly at risk. It may cause series of disease especially to children. Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the additon of large amounts of materials to the water. When it is unfit for its intended use, water is consider polluted.
There are two type of polluted water ; point source and non point source. Point source of pollution can be produce when harmful substance are directly emitted into water. A non point source occurs when pollutants indirectly go to the body of water. They need some media to move pollutants to the water as porosity in soil or air. When the pollutants contaminated with water it can change water become polluted water.
Cause of pollution
The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal industrial and agricultural. Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and commercial establishment. The causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae.
Ground water contaminated by household waste and solid waste.
Nearly ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is ground water. It contained in natural rock formation which is called aquifers. Over a half of world population relies on ground water as a source of drinking water. More than eighty percent of community water is dependent on ground water. However, there are some problems of the quality of ground water due to ground water contamination. Some examples are leaking underground storage tanks and municipal landfills.
Many of hazardous materials from household waste and solid waste such as organic waste ( kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers, leaves and fruits ), toxic waste
(old medicine, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizers and pesticide containers, batteries and shoe polish) could contaminate with ground water if the management of the disposal or landfill is very poor.
Landfill is one of the problems of improper waste disposal. All types of waste is dumped in landfills and when water seeps through them. Some chemical and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury can contaminated and in turn pollutes the surrounding area. They can pass through the porosity of soil and make ground water become polluted. This contamination of groundwater and soil through landfills is known as leaching.
Health effect from water pollution
The disease which come from water pollution is the big problem to human health. There are many disease which are effect to human health after consume the polluted water. WHO continues to track the evolving infectious disease situation, sound the alarm when needed, share expertise, and mount the kind of response needed to protect populations from the consequences of epidemics, whatever and wherever might be their origin.
1. Water-borne disease
2. Water-washed disease
3. Water-based disease
4. Water-related disease
There are some disease caused by the ingestion of water contaminated by human or animal feces or urine which are contain pathogenic bacteria or viruses. The disease are cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary dysentery and other diarrheal diseases.
There are some disease caused by skin or eye contact of poor personal hygine with contaminated water which are contain the infectious. The disease are scabies, Tracoma and flea, lice and tick-borne disease.
Some parasite that live in the contaminated water can caused disease such as dracunculiasis, schistomiasis, and other helminthes.
Some kind of insects such as mosquitoes live in contaminated water before they become to be adult. These can cause disease when they grow up and transform to be adult. The diseases such as dengue, filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, trypanosomiasis and yellow fever.
It’s time for us to be conscious about of environment and community, you do not only hold your life if you throw that piece of plastic anywhere. Think first before you throw! Don’t be selfish, this is our earth, we’re talking about, if we all think the same in saving our earth everyone will take benefit, so why won’t we just save each other? The solution is start behaving and saving the earth.